The prostate gland is located underneath the bladder and is about the size of a chestnut.
In this cut section, you can see that part of the urethra is encased within the prostate gland. As a man ages, the prostate typically enlarges in size in a process called benign hypertrophy, which means that the gland got larger without becoming cancerous.
The enlarged prostate crowds its anatomical neighbors, particularly the urethra, causing it to narrow. The narrowed urethra results in several of the symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy, or BPH. Symptoms may include a slowed or delayed start in urination, the need to urinate frequently during the night, difficulty in emptying the bladder, a strong, sudden urge to urinate, and incontinence. Less than half of all men with BPH have symptoms of the disease, or their symptoms are minor and do not restrict their life style.
BPH is a normal physiological process of aging and treatment options are available. The choice of the appropriate treatment is based on the severity of the symptoms, the extent to which they affect lifestyle, and the presence of other medical conditions. Men with BPH should consult with their physician yearly to monitor the progression of the symptoms and decide the best course of treatment as needed.
Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. The condition can be self-limiting or can progress to fibrosis (scarring), cirrhosis or liver cancer. Hepatitis viruses are the most common cause of hepatitis in the world but other infections, toxic substances (e.g. alcohol, certain drugs), and autoimmune diseases can also cause hepatitis.
There are 5 main hepatitis viruses, referred to as types A, B, C, D and E. These 5 types are of greatest concern because of the burden of illness and death they cause and the potential for outbreaks and epidemic spread. In particular, types B and C lead to chronic disease in hundreds of millions of people and, together, are the most common cause of liver cirrhosis and cancer.
Hepatitis A and E are typically caused by ingestion of contaminated food or water. Hepatitis B, C and D usually occur as a result of parenteral contact with infected body fluids. Common modes of transmission for these viruses include receipt of contaminated blood or blood products, invasive medical procedures using contaminated equipment and for hepatitis B transmission from mother to baby at birth, from family member to child, and also by sexual contact.
Acute infection may occur with limited or no symptoms, or may include symptoms such as jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), dark urine, extreme fatigue, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain.
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is present in the faeces of infected persons and is most often transmitted through consumption of contaminated water or food. Certain sex practices can also spread HAV. Infections are in many cases mild, with most people making a full recovery and remaining immune from further HAV infections. However, HAV infections can also be severe and life threatening. Most people in areas of the world with poor sanitation have been infected with this virus. Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent HAV.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is transmitted through exposure to infective blood, semen, and other body fluids. HBV can be transmitted from infected mothers to infants at the time of birth or from family member to infant in early childhood. Transmission may also occur through transfusions of HBV-contaminated blood and blood products, contaminated injections during medical procedures, and through injection drug use. HBV also poses a risk to healthcare workers who sustain accidental needle stick injuries while caring for infected-HBV patients. Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent HBV.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is mostly transmitted through exposure to infective blood. This may happen through transfusions of HCV-contaminated blood and blood products, contaminated injections during medical procedures, and through injection drug use. Sexual transmission is also possible, but is much less common. There is no vaccine for HCV.
Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infections occur only in those who are infected with HBV. The dual infection of HDV and HBV can result in a more serious disease and worse outcome. Hepatitis B vaccines provide protection from HDV infection.
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is mostly transmitted through consumption of contaminated water or food. HEV is a common cause of hepatitis outbreaks in developing parts of the world and is increasingly recognized as an important cause of disease in developed countries. Safe and effective vaccines to prevent HEV infection have been developed but are not widely available.
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection in any part of your urinary system — your kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. Most infections involve the lower urinary tract — the bladder and the urethra.
Women are at greater risk of developing a UTI than are men. Infection limited to your bladder can be painful and annoying. However, serious consequences can occur if a UTI spreads to your kidneys.
Doctors typically treat urinary tract infections with antibiotics. But you can take steps to reduce your chances of getting a UTI in the first place.
Sexual intercourse may lead to cystitis, but you don't have to be sexually active to develop it. All women are at risk of cystitis because of their anatomy — specifically, the short distance from the urethra to the anus and the urethral opening to the bladder.
Sexually transmitted infections (or STIs) are infections that can be caught or passed on when you have unprotected sex, or close sexual contact, with another person who already has an STI.
Using a condom for all types of sex is the best way to avoid STIs and HIV. Vaccines can prevent certain STIs like genital warts and hepatitis B. Reducing the number of sexual partners you have and not mixing alcohol, drugs and sex also means you’re less likely to get infected.
STIs should not be diagnosed yourself by looking at pictures, because symptoms vary from person to person. Only a healthcare professional can diagnose an STI.
Find out more here about different STIs, their symptoms, testing and treatment options and how to protect yourself from them.
Vaginitis is an irritation of your vagina or vulva. It’s super common and usually easy to treat. Almost everyone with a vulva gets vaginitis at some point.
What causes vaginitis?
Vaginitis is when your vulva or vagina becomes inflamed or irritated. This can happen when there’s a change in the normal chemical balance of your vagina, or if you have a reaction to irritating products.
Many things can cause vaginitis — and sometimes there’s more than 1 cause. Things that lead to vaginitis include:
Everyone’s body is different, so things that lead to irritation in some people don’t cause problems for others. Read more about keeping your vagina healthy.
What are vaginitis symptoms?
The signs of vaginitis can vary depending on what’s causing it. But vaginitis symptoms usually include:
Vaginitis symptoms can be super obvious, or barely noticeable. Sometimes there are no symptoms at all. It's a good idea to pay attention to what your vulva and vaginal discharge normally looks, feels, and smells like, so it’s easier to notice any changes that could be signs of vaginitis or other infections.